General Reference List Principles

The reference section begins on a new page with a centred heading (no bold or underline). The reference list is only to include those references you have cited in your assignment. Below are specific details on how to reference.

Authors’ names

Invert authors’ names (i.e., give the surname first, then the initials). Separate surnames from initials with a comma. Separate initials with a full stop and a space. Separate different names with a comma. For two or more authors, separate the last name from the rest with a comma, then an ampersand (“&”). Do not use ‘et al.’ in the reference list. Always give all the authors’ names. When referencing the editors of a book you need to list the author’s initials first, followed by their surname. See the book chapter example on the previous page.


Provide the year of publication of the reference in brackets followed by a full stop. For books, this is the most recent copyright date, and is usually found on the page after the title page. For journals the year is the publication date of the journal. For translations, give the date of the translation, and add the date of the original work in parentheses after the end of the reference.


Provide the title of the reference exactly as it appears in the original, including the original spelling. Capitalise the first letter only of book, journal article, and book chapter titles and the first letter of a word appearing after a colon ‘:’ in the title. Capitalise all major words in journal titles. Italicise book titles and journal titles.


Use a hanging indent of five to seven spaces (½ an inch) and double space each reference. Please note that if you are viewing this page on a web browser, the hanging indent is not shown. Below is an example of a reference with a hanging heading.


Conlon, E.G., Lilleskaret, G., Wright, C. M., & Power, G.F. (2012) The influence of

contrast on coherent motion processing in dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 50(7),


Step-by-step instructions on how to do a hanging indent

1. In your reference list highlight the reference/s you want to format using the hanging indent. 2. Right click and then click on 'Paragraph'

  • In the Paragraph window, go to the 'Indentation' section

  • Under 'Special' click on the drop down menu

  • Click on 'Hanging'

  • Make sure the hanging indent is done 'by 1.27cm' otherwise adjust to this.

3. Click 'OK'

  • Order

References must be in alphabetical order of first author’s surname. Do not number references.

  • One-author references precede multiple-author references beginning with the same surname {e.g., Alleyne, R. L. (2001) precedes Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999)}

  • References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically based on surname of the second or third author. (e.g., Gosling, J. R., & Jerald, K. (2000) precedes Gosling, J. R. & Telvin, D. F. (1996)}.

  • References with the same author(s) in the same order are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first (e.g., Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (2000) precedes Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (2001).

  • References with the same author(s) and year, are arranged alphabetically by the first word of the title, and distinguish references by single lower case letters immediately after the year (e.g., Smith, 1997a).

View the video below to see how to do a hanging indent.